Frequently-Asked Questions

Due to the multitude of document types and the varying levels of effort involved in their processing, there is no set pricing schedule. Projects are quoted individually. To request a quote for your current project, please
send an e-mail or simply call .

What about references?
References are available by request only. Please understand that the client relationships of a translator, whose customers are often competitors in their respective markets, are highly sensitive and subject to non-disclosure agreements. Besides, publishing the names of individual clients might cause an unacceptable frequency of reference requests. Please feel free to
contact me at any time for up-to-date reference client information.
File formats and file transmission
Please send your translation documents in an editable format if possible, attached to an e-mail or by any other electronic means. Supporting reference material may be sent in any format. I generally produce copy in any of the following formats:
.doc / .docx
OpenOffice formats
MS PowerPoint
MS Excel
How do you assess the quality of a translation?
There are a number of approaches to quantify certain quality criteria. Issues such as terminology errors and other aspects of “craftsmanship” (grammar, sentence structure, clear understanding of the original text etc.) can be measured quite easily. But that is just the beginning. Knowing how to handle language to achieve the intended impact is largely a matter of talent (and it takes some practice). Trust your instincts when you read a translation: Does it make sense? Did you understand the message right away? Or does it appear awkward? Is it vague? And so on....

Austrian, German and Swiss German
There is some confusion about the differences between German, Austrian and Swiss German. These differences are minimal. As far as spelling is concerned, the only discrepancy affects the “ß” character which is not used in Switzerland (the Swiss use double-s instead).
Also, there are a few words (or word variants) that are only in use in Austria or Switzerland, respectively. They are fully understood in the respective other countries, however. There is no reason to worry that a document written for an audience in Germany will not be fully understood in Austria or Switzerland.
German literature is universal to the three countries. Documents destined exclusively for Switzerland should not contain the ß character.
Terms such as “Low German” and “High German” relate to dialect families that are without relevance to translation.

We have decided in favor of a lower quotation.

Price levels on the translation market differ as widely as quality levels. You get what you pay for, simply put. It all depends on the impression you wish to leave with your audience. The linguistic quality of your documentation speaks for you!

Could you publish some samples of your work?
Copyright and contract stipulations often prohibit the publication of such samples. In particular, I am not allowed to disclose any information about my customers or their customers, products and services. However, upon request I will gladly provide samples in the form of links to Web pages I have localized, or as pdf files of published documents. Furthermore, you may request a sample translation free of charge.
Some general thoughts about translation
A language is a living organism that needs to be treated with care and a sense of responsibility. A smooth, idiomatically correct flow of the target text is the objective of the translator’s work. Each sentence of the original document first needs to be understood, then re-thought in the target language. Finding just the right idiomatic expression in the target language in each given situation is key to creating a translation that gives the appearance of an original text.
While good writing skills are imperative for any written communication effort, knowing what you are writing about is just as essential. Each new project requires studying and fully understanding the respective subject matter. You cannot translate what you don’t understand—a fact that is often ignored in the translation industry.
Translating is much more than just substituting a word in the target language for each word in the source language. That is why machines cannot do it. The logic—or the lack thereof—behind human language is totally different from the way machines (i.e. computers) work. It takes a human brain to translate it. What is more, different languages use different imagery, different grammatical principles and above all, very different idiomatic expressions.
Clarity is essential. Compensating for a lack of understanding by using vague expressions is a technique as common as it is fatal for communication.

Transcreation means freely recreating the intentions of the original text in the target language. It goes beyond traditional translation by placing greater emphasis on differences of culture, and by being less literal. Transcreation is considered by many as a preferable approach to localizing Websites and marketing copy.


Andreas Bernd Kühner, M.A.
An der Schlossmauer 17a
D-93161 Sinzing

Tel: +49 (0) 9404 6410 901
Mobil: +49 (0) 179 1589 444

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